Children & Youth
Children in Poverty, Race/Ethnicity

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau

What does this measure?

The number of children under 18 living below the federally defined poverty line, expressed as a percentage of all children under 18 and reported by various racial and ethnic groups. Poverty thresholds vary by family composition and year. In 2020, the threshold for a four-person family with two children was $26,246.

Why is this important?

Children raised in impoverished environments are at higher risk for a wide variety of health and social problems, including poor performance in school. The challenges they face in childhood can diminish their chances for successful adult lives.

How is our region performing?

In 2016-20, 13% of both white and Asian children in the region were living in poverty. By contrast, 36% of Hispanic children and 46% of African American children in the region were living in poverty. While the region's Asian and white children had fairly similar rates of poverty as their statewide and national counterparts, the percentage of African American and Hispanic children in poverty within the region was substantially higher than among those groups in New York State or the nation as a whole. The child poverty rate increased among African American (up 7 points) and white (up 4 points) children from 2000 through 2016-20, but decreased by one point for Asian children and 4 points for Hispanic children. In the City of Rochester, 50% of Hispanic and 53% of African American children were living in poverty.

Among African American and Hispanic children, poverty was concentrated in the City of Rochester in 2016-20, with 81% of the region's African American children who are in poverty living in the City, and 66% of Hispanic children. By contrast, white child poverty was more dispersed, with just 23% of poor children who are white living in the City.

Why do these disparities exist?

As people of color have historically and contemporaneously been locked out of economic opportunity in many ways, poverty crosses generations, and child poverty rates are higher. Factors include: living in a single-parent household, especially if the single parent is female; having parent(s) who are unemployed, employed and/or underemployed in low-wage jobs or incarcerated; and living in communities that have experienced disinvestment and have ineffective and/or under-resourced schools.

Notes about the data

The multi-year figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval).

The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Poverty status is not reported for people in institutions, including college dormitories and military barracks, and people in living situations without conventional housing. Data for this indicator are expected to be released in the fourth quarter.

Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS16%28%27%14%
NYS (excluding NYC)11%29%21%12%
Region13%**46%36%13%
Monroe13%*47%38%12%
Surrounding Counties6%***29%***30%14%
Genesee27%***41%***21%***11%
Livingston0%***55%***48%*16%
Ontario0%***7%***29%*11%
Orleans0%***30%***40%**19%
Seneca47%***20%***31%***12%*
Wayne15%***39%***17%**15%
Wyoming0%***42%***50%***11%
Yates0%***100%***56%***22%
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester34%**53%50%42%
Scottsville (V)N/A***94%***62%***26%***
Fairport (V)N/A***N/A***0%***31%***
Webster (V)0%***100%***0%***3%***
Hilton (V)N/A***87%**24%***5%***
Pittsford (V)N/A***N/A***0%***0%***
Greece2%***50%**19%**12%*
Perinton17%***2%***3%***7%**
Henrietta16%***38%***23%***6%**
Riga0%***0%***N/A***13%***
Chili0%***17%***12%***3%***
Mendon0%***0%***0%***5%***
Sweden59%***0%***4%***14%***
East RochesterN/A***0%***0%***4%***
Parma0%***79%**8%***4%***
WheatlandN/A***94%***52%***25%***
Churchville (V)0%***0%***N/A***9%***
Spencerport (V)N/A***N/A***N/A***1%***
Honeoye Falls (V)N/A***N/A***N/A***14%***
Gates17%***4%***21%***13%**
Penfield0%***2%***4%***4%**
HamlinN/A***N/A***N/A***8%***
Pittsford0%***0%***0%***1%***
Brighton5%***60%***13%***6%***
Irondequoit39%***25%***38%**7%**
RushN/A***N/A***N/A***0%***
Brockport (V)100%***N/A***8%***10%***
ClarksonN/A***0%***0%***13%***
Ogden0%***0%***66%***12%***
Webster4%***16%***0%***3%***
Regional Cities
BataviaN/A***35%***39%***16%**
Canandaigua0%***0%***21%***12%***
Geneva0%***17%***35%**16%**

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS50,610182,762262,498312,792
NYS (excluding NYC)11,72765,63479,164195,004
Region891**15,23110,27622,275
Monroe839*14,7518,42611,334
Surrounding Counties52***480***1,85010,941
Genesee10***53***150***1,113
Livingston0***114***331*1,528
Ontario0***36***531*2,008
Orleans0***63***272**1,245
Seneca9***28***94***765*
Wayne33***167***249**2,408
Wyoming0***15***132***741
Yates0***4***91***1,133
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester456**12,3616,7455,145
Scottsville (V)0***79***43***78***
Fairport (V)0***0***0***277***
Webster (V)0***43***0***19***
Hilton (V)0***183**27***83***
Pittsford (V)0***0***0***0***
Greece12***992**313**1,644*
Perinton72***10***27***583**
Henrietta128***374***141***341**
Riga0***0***0***162***
Chili0***116***37***148***
Mendon0***0***0***100***
Sweden17***0***8***278***
East Rochester0***0***0***27***
Parma0***183**27***155***
Wheatland0***79***43***208***
Churchville (V)0***0***0***34***
Spencerport (V)0***0***0***10***
Honeoye Falls (V)0***0***0***72***
Gates32***38***94***418**
Penfield0***5***19***315**
Hamlin0***0***0***135***
Pittsford0***0***0***66***
Brighton44***222***42***266***
Irondequoit68***328***575**474**
Rush0***0***0***0***
Brockport (V)17***0***8***86***
Clarkson0***0***0***147***
Ogden0***0***353***495***
Webster10***43***2***227***
Regional Cities
Batavia0***30***112***327**
Canandaigua0***0***45***215***
Geneva0***36***241**201**

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS20%33%36%13%
NYS (excluding NYC)8%31%24%10%
Region12%39%40%9%
Monroe12%39%41%7%
Surrounding Counties12%42%33%11%
Genesee0%39%43%8%
Livingston34%13%28%9%
Ontario4%41%32%8%
Orleans10%49%49%13%
Seneca24%53%26%14%
Wayne5%40%26%10%
Wyoming0%39%19%12%
Yates38%44%38%22%
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester25%43%49%25%
Riga0%0%0%2%
Churchville (V)0%0%0%3%
East Rochester100%0%13%11%
Wheatland0%47%0%4%
Honeoye Falls (V)0%0%0%2%
Henrietta19%8%29%5%
Spencerport (V)0%N/AN/A0%
Parma100%0%0%5%
Brighton12%10%42%3%
Rush0%N/AN/A1%
Fairport (V)0%0%0%3%
Gates12%11%8%5%
Pittsford (V)0%N/AN/A6%
Irondequoit4%21%32%5%
Brockport (V)0%7%55%5%
Webster (V)0%20%77%8%
Penfield2%0%14%4%
Chili25%1%15%4%
Sweden0%4%36%6%
Greece13%32%12%5%
Mendon0%0%0%3%
Perinton1%5%6%3%
Clarkson32%13%17%4%
Webster5%15%21%3%
Hilton (V)100%0%0%2%
Hamlin0%0%0%6%
Scottsville (V)0%0%0%2%
Ogden0%0%0%3%
Pittsford3%0%0%3%
Regional Cities
Batavia0%47%64%14%
Canandaigua21%0%55%8%
Geneva0%47%51%16%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS45,952281,550308,765357,773
NYS (excluding NYC)5,54079,90952,968210,731
Region66215,0577,26720,482
Monroe56713,9896,2498,992
Surrounding Counties951,0681,01811,490
Genesee01411091,207
Livingston457871,276
Ontario122353021,755
Orleans42332171,382
Seneca1863381,060
Wayne83682242,274
Wyoming07261,213
Yates814151,323
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester24513,3305,5814,264
Riga00035
Churchville (V)00016
East Rochester7010164
Wheatland035047
Honeoye Falls (V)00014
Henrietta665782303
Spencerport (V)0000
Parma2500193
Brighton7428111186
Rush0004
Fairport (V)00040
Gates345716283
Pittsford (V)00018
Irondequoit8120171508
Brockport (V)052851
Webster (V)0182485
Penfield6026287
Chili23530218
Sweden0549146
Greece403131031,137
Mendon00078
Perinton7716335
Clarkson79763
Webster122347251
Hilton (V)250031
Hamlin000177
Scottsville (V)00010
Ogden000127
Pittsford1300186
Regional Cities
Batavia010471463
Canandaigua12017187
Geneva0193257354

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.







Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS


INDICATORS - Grouped by Topic REGIONAL VALUE YEAR NYS COMPARISON TREND | REGION
Prenatal Care 78% 2018 3 1
Increasing
Prenatal Care, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights 8.4% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Infant Mortality Rate 6.9 2017-19 2 0
Maintaining
Infant Mortality Rate, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels 0.8% 2018 2 -1
Decreasing
Children in Poverty 19% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
Children in Poverty, Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Single-Parent Families 39% 2016-20 2 1
Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect 20 2020 2 1
Increasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions 1.8 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Pregnancy 1.3% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Births 12 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Arts and Culture Attendance 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tourism Spending $894 2020 1 -1
Decreasing
Recreation Spending $52 2020 1 -1
Decreasing
Voter Registration Rate 83% 2020 2 1
Increasing
Voter Participation Rate 64% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Registered Library Borrowers 58% 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Library Visits 5.4 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Charitable Contributions as a Percentage of Income 0.8% 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles 10% 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
Total Population 1.9% 2020 2 1
Increasing
Population by Age 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Age and Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Disengaged Youth, Ages 16 to 19 6% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income $61,376 2016-20 1 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living in Poverty 13% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living in Poverty, by Sex 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Public Assistance Recipients 1.7% 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Approval Rate for Public Assistance Applications 24% 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Females Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Seniors Living in Poverty, by Sex 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Households Receiving SNAP 13% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Female Seniors Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tax Filers Receiving Earned Income Tax Credit 15% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
EITC Dollars $173 2019 1 -1
Decreasing
Change in Total Jobs -8% 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Change in Number of Business Establishments by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Jobs by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Sector Shares of Regional Total Employment 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Unemployment Rate 8.1% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Average Salary by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 12% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Employment-to-Population Ratio 60% 2016-20 2 -1
Decreasing
Prekindergarten Participation 58% 2020 3 1
Increasing
School Spending Per Student $23,561 2020 1 1
Increasing
Instructional Spending Per Student $16,983 2020 1 1
Increasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services 2021 0 -1
Decreasing
Grade 3 English 44% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 Math by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English 39% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 8 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Regents Algebra 1 73% 2019 3 1
Increasing
Regents English 83% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate 89% 2021 3 1
Increasing
Cohort Graduation Rate, Beyond Four Years 89% 2021 3 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2021 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Without Health Insurance 4% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Supply of Doctors 35.3 2019 1 1
Increasing
Mortality Rate 693 2019 1 -1
Decreasing
Chlamydia Rate 55 2018 3 1
Increasing
Chlamydia Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Gonorrhea Rate 18 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Maternal Health, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-18 0 10 Not Applicable*
Gonorrhea Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Early Syphilis Rates 1.8 2018 3 1
Increasing
Early Syphilis Rates within Monroe County, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with HIV 104 2019 0 1
Increasing
People Living with HIV by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with AIDS 132 2019 0 1
Increasing
People Living with AIDS by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Percent of Days with Good Air Quality 0 10 Not Applicable*
Alcohol-related Crashes 2.5 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Median Home Value $143,640 2016-20 1 1
Increasing
Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment by Primary Substance 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Median Rental Prices $896 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Homeowners 2.3 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Overall Housing Cost Burden 28% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters 32% 2016-20 3 10 Not Applicable*
Rent Burdened Households 47% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Homeownership Rate 68% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Homeownership Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Vacant Housing Units 9% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
Homeless Persons 0 10 Not Applicable*
Serious Crimes 170 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Violent Crimes 24 2020 3 1
Increasing
Victims of Domestic Violence 57 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates 8.7 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2018 0 10 Not Applicable*
Arrest Rates 130.1 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Arrest Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Per-Capita Spending for Local Government $3,731 2019 0 1
Increasing
Female to Male Earnings Ratio 0.68 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
*No or multiple regional values for this indicator


Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS





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